Workplace Security Methodologies
Security methodologies involve planning, developing, updating, and evaluation of safety programs in an organization. It is the procedure followed by security analysts to control or mitigate security risks within a firm. For a better analysis of the security risks within an organization, theories have been formulated to predict the crime probability. The theories are useful in mitigating security risks as they emphasize criminal behaviors in the real-world (Purpura, 2011, p. 125). However, these theories are only abstract since they do not precisely predict the time and location of a crime occurrence.
Two of the theories include routine activity theory and crime pattern theory. The routine activity theory suggests that individuals turn to crime based on the regular actions they perform. Similarly, people fall victims to crime depending on the activities they engage in (Purpura, 2011, p. 142). For instance, people who prefer drinking at the bar to going to church are more likely to be duped. The crime pattern theory, on the other hand, describes a procedure that may lead to crime activities. For example, if the offender knows the place where people will be at a particular time, the path to the crime scene, and the advantages he will gain from committing the crime, there will be a great likelihood of a crime occurrence.
The two theories have few similarities in their assumptions of crime probability. Both of them describe the procedure leading to the eventual occurrence of a crime. According to the routine activity theory, likelihood of committing a crime depends on the routine activities an individual performs; for example, if a person frequents violent areas, he is more than likely to commit a violent crime. The crime pattern theory also describes events that might lead to the eventual crime. That is to say, if a person is familiar with the routine pattern of the criminal activity, the chances are high that this individual will sooner or later commit the crime. Both theories are based on the familiarity with normal procedures resulting in a crime.
However, the two theories contrast with each other in various areas. For instance, while in the crime pattern theory the offender is motivated to master the peculiarities of victims’ activities in order to have the opportunity to commit a crime, his motivation in the routine activity theory cannot be measured. Every individual performs routine activities such as going to work every day or, like a company accountant, visiting bank at the end of the week. These routine activities do not generate motivation for committing a crime. On the other hand, the offender in the crime pattern theory waits for an opportunity to commit a crime, while according to the routine activity theory, the lawbreaker may be urged by different motives other than the plan to commit crime, for example, poverty or unemployment.
Methodologies to Combat Workplace Violence
Workplace violence involves physical threats aimed at a worker in an organization. The risk of violence may come from fellow workers, former workers of the institution, clients, or any individual who has a relation to the organization. The workplace violence may also reveal itself in the form of verbal abuse or even worse, assault (Purpura, 2011, p. 154). Ensuring the security in an organization by adopting various methodologies and strategies reduces chances of violence in the workplace. These methodologies and approaches take into consideration the causes or indicators of a potential violence hence developing favorable strategies to curb violent incidents.
Some of the strategies include developing a workplace policy to fight violence, which is considered to be an administrative control measure. The management of an organization should develop a workplace policy that prohibits any form of violence. The policy should be aimed at protecting employees from the threats they might receive from their seniors or coworkers and which may result in physical violence. There have been cases when after the arguments with supervisors, disgruntled workers opened fire on their colleagues. The Kentucky incident is a vivid example of such case. Employees who disobey the violence policies should be punished or offered training programs on anger management. Another strategy to mitigate workplace violence lies in training employees to detect and control any indicators of workplace violence (Barling, 2009, p. 6). It is a behavioral strategy which was elaborated to organize workers and which proved to have various implications. Training programs will help employees to have an understanding of what are the possible cases of workplace violence and how to deal with them.
Crisis management is another strategy used to control workplace violence. Not all workplace violence cases are caused by employees. Some of them may be provoked by people from the outside, such as robbers. Crisis management strategies, thus, identify workplace areas that may be prone to violence from the outside, for example, areas of exchanging money with the customers. The financial organizations should protect the workers by applying crisis management programs. Installation of protective glass to shield the workers will help to limit the access to the target victims of violent offenders. Surveillance cameras and silent alarms are also effective means of protecting the workplace from possible violence.
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Finally, administration strategies of zero tolerance to the workplace violence should include implementation of a proper system that can be used by workers to report violent incidents in the workplace or emergency responses to those incidents. For instance, silent alarms should be backed by a fast and responsive security team to reduce the escalation of violence. Such policies and programs should be checked from time to time to ensure maintaining maximum security levels in an organization.
Strategies to Prevent Drugs in the Workplace
Drug abuse comes at a great cost to both the organization and the individual. In the USA, for instance, over 14 million people are addicted to drugs and alcohol. The issue, thus, causes problems to the organizations most of these individuals are employed at. Consequently, it becomes the responsibility of an organization to develop security programs to eradicate drug and alcohol use in the workplace (Purpura, 2011, p. 207). There are various strategies used by organizations to fight this problem. Some of them are mentioned below.
Employee Assistance Programs
This is an organizational program which aims at assisting the employees to solve their personal problems that might affect the productivity of the business. The personal issues are related to health, emotional and mental well-being of an individual (Waehrer, 2016, pg. 55). Most organizations use these programs to address alcohol and drug abuse in the workplace. Employee assistance programs can be conducted in different forms such as self-referrals and informal referrals. According to the self-referral for the employees are urged to seek help on their own initiatives. The informal referrals stimulate employees of a particular unit to hold meetings to discuss the effects of drugs in the workplace and how they may prevent the problem solution. This acts as a continuous reminder to reduce the use drugs in the workplace.
Written policies prohibit employees from drinking alcohol or using drugs in the workplace. They are reinforced with the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (Pidd, 2014, p. 158), which requires every organization to create a drug-free zone in the workplace. Failure to follow such regulations leads to suspension or dismissal of the worker.
Employee Drug Education
Many organizations have invested in programs to educate their employees on the effects of drug use in the workplace. The educational programs also inform the worker about the health effects of the off-job drinking such as hangovers, and their influence on the productivity of the firm. The programs include long-term learning sessions for the employees to ensure long-term changes. Research on the effectiveness of the employee drug education programs indicates significant positive changes. Most of the employees dependent on drugs often suffer from psychological issues. According to Waehrer, Miller, Hendrie, and Galvin (2016), employee education in the workplace does not only have a positive impact on the employee’s health and personal well-being but also increases productivity in an organization.
Health Promotion Programs
This is another program conducted by the organization in addition to educational programs. Health promotion programs include free health programs offered to the employees. Often some employees may be suffering from health issues such as high blood pressure and loss of weight. Health administrators advise such individuals to limit alcohol or drug abuse to improve their health. These programs have proved to be vital in reducing drug use for individuals who desire to build their careers with the organization.
Employees who are working closely together can discover their colleagues suffering from the problem of drug and alcohol use. For instance, supervisors are trained to detect any problems the workers in their units might face, including drug abuse. Managers or close friends of addicted individuals need to advise them to seek assistance before the habit affects their productivity. During workplace meetings managers who are tackling the issue of drug use in the workplace often ask employees to be vigilant and help their colleagues seek aid before they lose their jobs due to drug abuse. Peer intervention is considered to be one of the best strategies since one is more likely to listen to a trusted friend or colleague rather than the supervisor.