Issues in Terrorism and Administrative Justice

Terrorism continues to evolve in its nature and characteristics, which calls for a critical approach to addressing the threat. Chapter 5 of the book Terrorism and homeland security by White is relevant in addressing gender roles, strategies, and technology in terrorism. In essence, the author reveals the external forces that promote terrorist activities, as well as the efforts of terrorists. The chapter draws heavily from the previous chapter and transitions into Chapter 6 that deals with separatist terrorism. Separatist terrorism has been in existence for over a century and it may take the form of domestic terrorism, as outlined in previous readings. The author of the two chapters reveals the multilayered nature of terrorism, which requires an all-rounded approach to combating both domestic and global terrorism.

 
 

Chapter 5: Gender Roles, Tactics, and Force Multipliers in Terrorism

White (2014) addresses the issue of modern terrorism from a strategic viewpoint in the sense that he assesses the tactics that contemporary terrorists use to subdue their victims. According to the chapter, terrorists use six major tactics that include kidnapping, hijacking, hostage taking, bombing, arson, and assault. In a rapidly evolving world, it is important to understand the strategies that terrorist employ in order to plan planning their activities by taking preventive measures against potential domestic and international terror attacks. Besides illustrating the tactics used by terrorists, the author refines his claim by addressing the force multipliers that, more often than not, work in favor of terrorists (White, 2014, p. 111).

In an attempt to explain the prevalence of terrorism around the world, the author addresses the concept of force multipliers as it applies to terrorism. Fundamentally, the author elucidates how terrorists employ the force multipliers to enhance their striking power without necessarily having to deploy many militants or huge resources. In order to combat terrorism effectively and efficiently, it is worth understanding the authors perspective of the force multipliers. He cites religious fanaticism, technology, transnational support, and media coverage as four main force multipliers that work to the advantage of terrorist networks across the globe. Furthermore, it is important to link terrorist tactics to the force multipliers to gain a clear understanding of how modern terrorist networks operate.

Although the chapter is precise about the strategies of terrorists, it would have been incomplete without illustrating how gender roles influence various terrorist activities around the world. This issue is critical in appreciating how terrorists deploy their tactics (White, 2014, p. 111). In particular, the author addresses the role that women play in either aiding or abetting terror activities. In order to gain a complete understanding of gender roles, the author looks at both the present and historical perspectives of the issue. In essence, the chapter does not associate women with victimization but rather portrays them as key players in terrorism. The chapter views female terrorism from a racial perspective, citing the United States as the country where they have played a significant role in intimidating racial minorities. Some other countries include Russia, France, and Ireland, where females participated in rebellions and revolutions. Accordingly, counterterrorism measures ought to recognize the significance of female terrorists even though technological advances give way to new forms of terrorism (White, 2014, p. 113).

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Another issue addressed in the chapter is technological terrorism, which is a looming threat to global security, given the fact that technology is a force multiplier. It is worth noting that technology has led to the emergence of radiological, biological, and chemical weapons that can be significantly dangerous if they fall into the hands of terrorists. The author expounds on how terrorists can use technology in their attacks around the globe. By highlighting the evolution of weapons, the author attempts to sensitize the readers to the potential threat of global terrorism in case the weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons, fall into the wrong hands. However, with the growing long-term terrorism based on separatist ideas, anything is possible, at least in the authors estimation (White, 2014, p. 117-118).

Chapter 6: Long-Term Separatist Terrorism

Separatist terrorism is a topic worth discussing because it has evolved to become a long-term problem in many countries around the world. However, the author of the chapter looks at separatist terrorists from various dimensions, including their demands and negotiations with legitimate governments. The author cites Basque Nation and Liberty as an ideal example of a separatist movement that had been problematic to the Spanish government for about fifty years. The chapter delves into the practical details of separatist movements, which helps in the understanding of different forms of terrorism. Although many people believe that terrorism emanates from radicalisms propagating extreme religious beliefs, the author reveals how separatisms can present a significant threat to national and global security. In extreme cases, separatism amounts to domestic terrorism. However, the chapter differentiates separatism from nationalist movements in order to delineate how separatist terrorists operate (White, 2014, p. 124).

When it comes to understanding the fundamentals of separatism, the author distinguishes between ethnic separatist and nationalist movements. In essence, the two forms of separatist terrorism differ in their nature and characteristics. The chapter links ethnic separatism to ideological terrorism. However, ideological terrorism differs significantly from separatist terrorism in the sense that the former has no room for negotiations or political pragmatism. One may deduce that separatist terrorism is a lesser form of terrorism or a more rational terrorism than ideological terrorism.

The chapter also informs the readers about the major cases of separatist terrorism that occurred in the past (White, 2014, p. 125). The three examples of nationalist and ethnic separatist terrorism offer a unique perspective of terrorism that assists in appreciating the 20th-century terrorism. The author names the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the Euskadi Ta Askatasuma (ETA) as some of the 20th-century separatism movements that shook the Sri Lankan government. Besides mentioning the historical perspective of separatist terrorism, the chapter cites Northern Ireland as one of the few countries in the world with modern separatist terrorism. The outlining of these perspectives gives credibility to the authors arguments in addition to the enhancement of the relevance of his opinions on terrorism. Consequently, the two chapters offer an instrumental insight into the evolution of terrorism and its prospects in the globalized world.

Critics and Suggestions

The two chapters are interrelated, particularly with regard to the multidimensional nature of terrorism that remains challenging for global think tanks. Concerning Chapter 5, the author should also have addressed the way to counterattack the tactics employed by terrorists. It highlights the force multipliers, strategies, gender roles, and technological aspects of tourism, which are universal across the globe. Nevertheless, it does not address how the same aspects can be used to curb terrorists. Chapter 6 looks as separatist terrorism, tracing it back to the 20th century and discussing the modern aspects of the concept, which makes it, in a way, a precursor of Chapter 5 in terms of background information. However, the readers cannot escape the complexity and multilayered nature of terrorism as it applies within countries and across the globe. The two chapters look at both the historical and modern aspects of terrorism, which makes terrorism a long-term and multidimensional concept. Conversely, Chapter 6 sheds light on Chapter 5 with regard to the key driving forces of terrorism on both the domestic levels and the international scale. The author addresses the issue of the evolution of terrorism from the separatist movements to the radical religious and ideological movements that exist today.

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The implication of the two chapters is that terrorism is a complex concept, and its counteraction needs to be a long-term goal. Additionally, some forces within and outside the terrorist networks help terrorism to flourish and spread across the globe. Such forces include the international differences and globalization. Accordingly, I will address the issue of the polygonal nature of terrorism by looking at all aspects of terrorism, including previous chapters on domestic and international terrorism. By so doing, I will come up with ways to employ tactics used by terrorists, such as media, in order to prevent and counter their attacks.

Conclusion

In summary, the author of the two chapters reveals the multilayered nature of terrorism, which requires an all-rounded approach to combating both domestic and global terrorism. In essence, in Chapter 5, White addresses the key factors that promote terrorism, including gender roles, strategies, and technology. The terrorists themselves may trigger such factors or the factors may be aided by external circumstances. This chapter is connected to the previous chapter and the preceding one that talks about separatist terrorism. The author succinctly deliberates on separatist terrorism, which has been in existence for over a century and which may take the form of domestic terrorism, as outlined in previous readings. Furthermore, Chapter 6 sheds light on the previous chapter in terms of the evolution and complexity of terrorism.

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