In what ways are the American, French, and Haitian revolutions similar and different?
The French, American, and Haitian revolutions all achieved their political goals with a varying degree of success, though some victories involved a significant loss to the nations. Having defeated Great Britain, the American citizens created one of the most democratic governments of all time. In France, Napoleon recognized the rights of peasants to land that they had bought from the nobles and church and established public schools controlled by the government.
One of the differences between the three revolutions is that although the Americans faced less social inequity and opposition as compared to their Haitian and French counterparts, they were able to defeat the Great British colonialism and establish independence without interfering with the social order (Armitage, David, and Sanjay 67). Despite experiencing terrible monetary, human and social costs, the Haitian and French revolution was able to promote the idea of ideal equality. Its democratic system established during the American Revolution was highly beneficial.
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In addition, although the revolutions were able to achieve most of its political agendas, Haiti achieved all of its political goals. When the Haitian Revolution ended, the country became an independent republic where there was no slavery and increased racial equality. However, although the American Revolution achieved a system of representative government, only adult minority males had voting rights while slavery continued (Clavin 45). Most Americans, including the black Americans, did have the freedom to vote, and only after several struggles did all Americans achieve equal rights to vote. Napoleon, on the other hand, withheld several reforms of the French Revolution and acted under his pleasure as France continued under traditional authoritarianism.
Select an ordinary object that made its appearance in the 1500-1850 and discuss its importance
One object that made its way between 1500 and 1850, particularly in 1783 is the air hot balloon. Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier invented the object. In 1782, Joseph Montgolfier filed a bag balloon made of silk and lifted it to the top of his house’s ceiling. He used dense hot air and did succeed (Gillispie 76). In 1783, Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier created a large spherical bag filled with hot air. They used a basket that hung beneath the hot air silk balloon. In November 1783, they managed to launch a 70-foot high silk balloon that carried Marquis D’Artandes and Jean-Francois Pitre. These men had a chance to experience the flight in the hot air balloons and were over 3000 feet high. They managed to fly five miles in less than half an hour. The invention of the hot air balloon in 1783 was an important historical object that formed the background and framework for the current aviation industry. Through balloon flights, people could fly through the air using balloons that contained buoyant gas such as heated air and helium. Ever since scientist has used unmanned balloons to carry meteorological instruments although they could be radio-controlled. Manned balloons have baskets attached underneath containing pilots and the passengers (Stokesbury 132). Ever since the invention of the hot air balloon, there were several attempts to make flights, and in 1902, the Wright brothers combined their efforts to introduce an aircraft. Ever since the construction of several planes, this has not only facilitated the transportation systems, but has also facilitated communication and international trade, which improved the economic, political, and social empowerment of human beings across the globe.
Had you a choice to live either during the Renaissance or the Enlightenment which would you choose and why?
Given a choice to live either in the Enlightenment or the Renaissance period, I would choose the Renaissance period. First, it is important to note that both Enlightenment and Renaissance are important points in the history of the world, especially in Europe. Although they have distinctive characteristics, both periods share the notion of being periods where there are significant discoveries in many aspects of human life and world development. It is worth recognizing that the Renaissance was a period of the intellectual and cultural movement that was experienced between the 15th and 16th centuries. It was a rebirth, and it had its origin in Italy and led to the re-birth of Greco-Roman civilization. According to Wootton (45), the Renaissance worldview was a departure from the medieval period, and it emphasized the importance of human artistry. During that time, there were celebrations of humanity and art, and it subsequently gave rise to a changed human perspective towards the church and religion. It was these different perceptions that led to the increase of reforms and scrutiny towards religious issues and views.
There was a special heightened interest and obsession with classical learning and culture. It provoked an interest in mathematics as well as natural sciences revived by late medieval scholars. The Renaissance was mostly centered around art, religion, and ancient wisdom. It led to the general movement towards freedom of religion and thought. During this period, the world concerning Renaissance was a humanistic worldview where there was more emphasis on the capacity and power of human beings. During this time, there were also some aspects of valuing humanity, education, and literacy, which were very powerful tools during the process of discovering and understanding the world.
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Although logic and reason boomed during the Enlightenment period, it was during the Renaissance, when people were more interested in math and sciences, that logic and reason became apparent to an understanding of the world. According to Evans, Weston, and Marr (43), during the Renaissance period, discovery and knowledge formed the basis of appreciating logic and reason. It is for this reason, therefore, that most historians have viewed the Enlightenment period as just a continuation of the Renaissance period.
Are there any parallels in policies pursued during the Ming dynasty and those taken by the present Chinese regime? Do you believe that there are patterns in cultural history?
There are parallels in policies that the king dynasty pursued and those of the current Chinese regime. In addition, there is a meaningful existence of patterns in the cultural history of the two regimes. Established in 1368 the Ming dynasty with Zin Yuanzhang claimed the Mandate of Heaven (Gungwu 44). The Ming Dynasty ruled the empire for almost three hundred years and prospered from private industry and trade as it traded with the Europeans. However, it fell due to attacks by the Manchu and internal rebellions. The Ming dynasty was different from the Mongol empire as t pursued different political aims. For example, instead of being aggressive and hungry for political power, the Ming dynasty concerned itself majorly with domestic policies as well as the development of a strong agricultural base. It was during the Ming dynasty that feudal society began to decline while capitalism started to show its roots. The policies stressed the importance of agriculture and the food output and production surpassed that of the previous dynasties.
There was the promotion of the market economy and urbanization as the handicraft industry continued to develop. The increased internationalization of trade led to increased European commodities such as alcohol, porcelain, vegetables, and tobacco in Chinese markets. These policies are similar to the current international trade policies currently promoted in China. After China opened its markets to international commerce during the 1990s and 2000s, the country has realized a high and fast global integration. Currently, China and the European Union are some of the biggest traders in the world. China is currently the largest trading partner of the European Union behind the United States. On the other hand, China considers the European Union to assist the biggest trading partner. China is currently open to trading relations with other parts of the world including Africa, the United States, the European Union, and South America. Furthermore, the country is open to trade relations with its neighboring Asian countries such as Malaysia and Hong Kong. All these international trade relations were also present during the Ming dynasty that encouraged trade with the European countries.
There was the rapid development of culture and science during the Ming dynasty. Some of the great masterpieces of the Chinese culture include Outlaws of the Marsh, Romance of the Three Kingdom, and the Journey to the West (Kang 102). Scientific development during the Ming dynasty led to the establishment of several scientific books. Their dynasty encouraged the development of military technology. There were significant achievements of architecture during this period, and the forbidden city of Beijing also appeared during the Ming dynasty.
However, the international foreign relations of the Ming dynasty differ from the current policies of the Chinese government. During Ming Dynasty, there were several war expeditions with the Mongolians, some of which were successful while some were unsuccessful. There were also large maritime tributary teams and missions with neighboring dynasties. However, the current foreign relations policies of China are more peaceful as the country is peaceful with most of its neighbors and avoids going to war. Therefore, overall, while there are some parallels between the Ming dynasty and the current Chinese policies, there is a host of differences between them.