The Success and Benefits of Sanctions in Iran
American legislators and policymakers have differently assessed sanctions imposed by the United States. Some believe that these limitations constitute a means for engaging Iran in the negotiations directed at Irans nuclear program. Some might believe that sanctions are a tactic for hindering the implementation of Iran nuclear program. In fact, it is one of the most effective methods of imposing limitations without any cost spent on the engagement of human and natural resources. Sanctions are tremendously beneficial and crucial to maintaining a peaceful and secure globalized society.
Benefits of Sanctions Imposed on Iran
Sanctions against Iran assist in maintaining a peaceful and secure globalized society. Without the use of sanctions, the modern world order would be in chaos. Sanctions allow for the use of peaceful actions to regulate foreign relations rather than result in war and acts of terror. They let nations witness which states or individuals pose a threat to peace and security, which nations to support to maintain proper diplomatic, trade, and military relations.
Concerning U.S.-Iran relations, it is worth admitting that the sanction regime, in general, has been evolving for more than three decades and reveals a number of stages in the American-Iranian history. Different types of sanctions against Iran depend on various guidelines, criteria, and implementation vehicles. The sanctions also focus on a range of outcomes. They include the achievement of agreement on Irans nuclear program and the limitation of the ability of the Iranian government to acquire materials for the further development of the nuclear program.
While exploring the benefits of sanctions, one should pay attention to the analysis of the Irans power, its ability to gain materials for the nuclear program, and its restricted ability to advance armed forces. The currently imposed sanctions have made it understandable for the Iranian authority to neglect the requirements of the UN Security Council. The sanctions seek to limit Iranian activities and destroy the Iranian economy. Additionally, they aim at changing Iranian behavior and policies. There are a number of advantages of sanctions, such as the possibility of creating a coalition. Specifically, the sanctions have been presented as a means for the countries to show a unique purpose and seriousness of their overwhelming concern with Irans nuclear intentions. The comprehensiveness and severity of the limitations have also reassured the friendly economies in the region that the U.S. government is aware of the security needs.
Further, the sanctions serve as a proof that the U.S. governmental authorities have argued that these limitations prevent the expansion of the nuclear program initiated by the Iranian government. Some policymakers have also stated that the absence of sanctions and other restrictions will leave a room for Iran to develop its nuclear weapon. However, the U.S. intelligence officials have assured that the Supreme Leader has not ratified the decision to create a nuclear weapon. Therefore, sanctions are considered effective in restricting the import of dual-purpose materials that enable Iran to achieve its objectives. They include the development of protection, missile delivery systems along with other elements of nuclear weapons capacity. According to the Iran Project (2012), Irans capacity to enrich uranium continues to expand, and Irans stockpile of low-enriched uranium (enriched to the level of 3.5-5 %) has continued to grow (p. 12). In such a way, it is possible to doubt the significance of the sanction and promote new recommendations and solutions for introducing new, more neutral and friendly paths of problem resolution.
Weakening the Iranian economy is also among the purposes and benefits of the sanctions. The pressure on the part of the United States reduces the Irans oil potential, depriving it of the revenues and profits. While exploring the major weaknesses of the sanctions imposed by the United States, one should pay attention to the analysis of the challenges that Irans economy is facing. They include the high unemployment rate, particularly among youth, and inflation, which tends to get worth because of the currency depreciation and the removal of the subsidies frameworks adopted by the government. These schemes involved sixteen major items, such as bread, surge, and energy. Since 2010, the government is still concerned with the second phase of a price correction. The abolition of reforms was associated with the cash income, which brings compensation for the increased prices. In the first place, the targeting strategy was adopted up to 70%. The government also planned to reduce the coverage and improve the cash transfer terms for low-income families. Further, the impositions of greater restrictions predetermine economic uncertainties, which create significant problems for the Iranian people. As soon as the EU and the U.S. blocked the Central Bank of Iran, the variety and seriousness of the sanctions were more persuasive.
Analysis of Sanctions in a Globalized Community
The European Union and the United States have focused on the agreement to enhance nuclear-induced sanctions against Iran for the nations adherence to the international restrictions and inspections. Instead, the sanctions will influence Iranian activity to advance weapons-grade resources. The ignorance of these sanctions could improve the Iranian economy destroyed by the limitations on banking and oil industries.
The representatives of the United States, France, Britain, China, Russia, and Germany have reached a consensus on the structure of a nuclear agreement, with a detailed outline aimed at completing by June. Iran will remove most of its nuclear frameworks, disposing of almost 100% of its uranium stockpile, as well as deliver the materials to inspections conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). One should admit that leaders should enhance nuclear-induced economic sanctions as soon as the IAEA defines Iran, which has been developed with the agreement measures. Many of the authorities who promote sanctions are still determined to impose restrictions. According to Barrabi (2015):
Completion of the nuclear deals terms will free Iran from U. S. trade restrictions as well as European Union sanctions that froze the assets of Irans central bank and businessmen with ties to the nuclear program, banned interaction with the Iranian banking system and prevented members from the purchase or transport of Iranian oil. (n. p.)
The sanctions have led to the decline of oil exports by almost 60% from 2011 to 2013. The 40% inflation increase was also the major outcome followed by an increase in costs for the nations citizens to purchase the necessities, including gas and food.
Sanctions and Perspectives
Currently, the world is witnessing the outcomes and conclusions of the nuclear negotiations between five members of the UN Security Council and Iran. The analysis of the business activities shows how a potential restriction could affect the economic level in the country. Certainly, the sanctions will have a potent impact on investments and trade connections between the rest of the world and Iran, particularly the Western countries.
Before analyzing the consequences of the nuclear program initiated by Iran, it is worth paying attention to the major provisions adopted by the agreement. Specifically, one should admit that the Iranian nuclear program is still considered the spot of attraction for the international community since its adoption. The program has certain implications for the global policies. Constantly changing international space has altered the perceptions of the international community regarding its usefulness and meaning. As a result, the United States, along with the party states of the European Union, has provided the new diplomatic resolution, leading to the growing hostility on the part of the global society. As a result, Khalid and Hashimi (2005) point out, The Revolution in Iran of 1979 changed the nature of relations altogether and the supporters of Iranian nuclear program became its opponent (p. 20). New Islamic regime has prevented the development of the nuclear program. Nevertheless, the overall shifts in the regional atmosphere made Iran renew its military integration, particularly after the war with Iraq. During this war, the U.S. sanctions became the major purpose of the spread of chemical weapons and missiles from Iraq, which resulted in massive influences. The war has made the Iranian government realize that it needs a strong defensive system.
The period from 1988 to 2002 has been the most successful one in Irans nuclear ambitions, particularly due to its policy of developing the full nuclear program. It included research and development, strong uranium infrastructure, and the establishment of uranium enrichment and conversion program. In the search for specific goals, Iran imported uranium secretly from China in 1991. During 1994 and 1999, the IAEA was aware of the 13 conferences and agreements between Iran and members of the supply network according to which the expertise in uranium development has been introduced. The next period of the relations between Iran and the Western community dates back to the 2002-2005, which made Iran focus on the abolition of the nuclear program. As Khalid and Hashimi (2005) mentioned:
Iranian nuclear program is facing strong opposition from the world especially from USA but a glance at history tells that this program was started with the full help and cooperation of the United States and the president of US provided nuclear technology to Iran under the banner of Atoms of peace. (n. p.)
As a result, the sanctions imposed by the United States and the European Union have turned out to be ambiguous. It is also worth noting that the 1979 Revolution has always been considered the turning point in the relations.
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As a part of the sanctions, the United States has concluded an agreement with Iran to reduce its nuclear capability and enhance the overall safety of the Western and European communities. According to this agreement, the Iranian government should halt its uranium enrichment from 19000 to 6100 for the next 15 years. Under this framework, the government plans its current stockpile to enrich uranium up to 300 kg during the next 15 years. The Iranian economy also plans to decrease the amount of uranium stockpile in terms of degree of enrichment and quality. In general, Ghafoor (2015) explains:
The aim of the above mentioned limitation on the Iranian enrichment production is to extend the breakout timeline, i. e. a time period required by Iran to make a Uranium bomb, which is currently assumed to be 2 to 3 months. (n. p.)
Currently, the agreement would provide the breakout timeline for almost a year. Under this agreement, the Iranian government provides IAEA inspectors, who limit access to the uranium enrichment facilities, which adhere to the IAEA Additional Protocol.
In the future, the agreement between the United States and Iran is expected to simplify the economic sanction and provide a new period of the economic welfare in Iran. Furthermore, the international sanction has strongly influenced Iranian society. According to the statistics, almost 70% of the Iranian population lives under the poverty line. These grave economic and social indicators would soon wash away and the Iranian people will again witness the economic and social prosperity that the deal promises (Ghafoor, 2015, n. p.). The nuclear agreement and the economic profits should contribute to the power and capacity of the Iranian government. Furthermore, they should provide the enhancement of the current forces against the conservative elite in the country. Currently, the Iranian leadership has all the authoritative power. At the same time, greater economic opportunities can face a decline with the cooperative design.
Despite the evident confrontation between the American and Iranian governments, there is still a possibility of further fruitful cooperation between the two economies in terms of developing new agreements on militant groups (Gordon, 2010). The economically strong Iranians would introduce a greater position to develop a vibrant role in contextual terms. Specifically, there should be shifts from religious dimension to the political ones in the Islamic country to develop new ties with the international economies in the Western region.
In conclusion, it is worth stressing that economic sanctions have not provided tangible changes to the Irans nuclear program. However, they have made Tehran develop negotiations with the United States. Furthermore, the Iranian economy has reacted to the sanctions with hostility because of the negative and gross restrictions imposed on their economic and political activities. Consequently, the Iranian government had to face such challenges as growing unemployment rates, the frustration of the population, and the development of the economic opportunities. The economic sanctions could later aggravate the inflation rate because of the currency depreciation. In response to these challenges, there should be the establishment of the new agreements between Iran and the United States to create a new level of international relationships.