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Introduction

Problems faced by people with disabilities require the support of proper organizations. The institutional help should include preventive measures, assistance, and rehabilitation procedures. Each person with disabilities should have the same opportunities as the other people. Equal opportunities are crucial in the contemporary society. Therefore, governmental and social institutions have to work on an integration of the people with disabilities into the community. Every person should have the opportunity to move free to and from home, office, school, university, shop or hospital.

Historical Aspects of Barriers for People with Disabilities

People with disabilities face many different barriers in daily life, which complicate their involvement in the social activities. Incapacity is a combination of activity restriction and limitation of participative capability (Zampolini, Bernardinello & Tesio, 2007). There are two kinds of disability, which are native or acquired during the life. People with both types of disabilities have been asserting their rights for a long time. The expression is founded on the interaction of characteristics of the person’s body and specificity of the surroundings (Schalock & Miguel, 2012). At the beginning of the 19th century, the society considered a person with disability to be a pathetic individual who was useless for the community (Anti-Defamation League, 2005). Such opinion had existed until the World War I. In 1933, the first president with a disability assumed an office. He was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who mightily supported the restitution of the disabled people (Adams, Bell, & Griffin, 2007). Later, veterans of the World War II continued asserting rights of people with disabilities. They set up the claims to the government to provide them with education and follow-up care (Anti-Defamation League, 2005). In the 60s, the people with special needs started a movement with a goal to defense their rights (Schlachter & Weber, 2013). The Rehabilitation Act went into effect in 1973. The federal bill ensured legal protection for people with disabilities (Anti-Defamation League, 2005). Moreover, the Education for all Handicapped Children Act in 1975 guaranteed the equal opportunities for studies (Koch & Moore, 2015). Later, the Americans with Disabilities Act indicated important changes in the daily lives of the people with health issues. ADA prohibited discrimination and oppression.

Obstacles Faced by the People with Disabilities

Accessibility Problems

Disabled people meet obstacles daily. Firstly, they face physical barriers such as features of buildings, streets, transport, etc. The people with special needs have problems with employment coursed by somatic restrictions. In addition to bodily limits, there are other kinds of obstacles. One of the most distressing problems is the barriers in communication. Sometimes the incapacity of a person to understand or receive the information leads to serious social discomfort. For instance, most websites require using a mouse and many of the printed media have small fonts. The technology obstacles create the other significant group of barriers. The problems appear in case when technology or structure is unchangeable and cannot support special assistive devices (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). For example, there are many websites with no green-reading software. Problems of disabled people include organizational obstacles as well. The barriers embrace different procedures or strategies, which discriminate disabled people based on their employment needs.

Barriers of Attitude

One of the most serious problems is a specific attitude towards the people with health problems. Very often, society focuses on the disability more than person’s individual features and abilities. People with disabilities suffer from different types of negative attitudes. The list of the problems includes unnecessary empathy, veneration, indifference, spread effect, inadequacy, offense, etc. Sometimes people think that the disabled person is “second-class citizen” and that he/she cannot manage with work properly (National Collaboration on Workforce and Disability, 2015). Nevertheless, some people with disabilities are even more responsible and better workers than employees without health problems. Moreover, the disabled persons usually do not need charity. They require appropriate support and equal rights. Indifference exhibits in a discharge of people with health issues. It is inadmissible because many blind persons can visit different places and travel alone; and people with quadriplegia are able to drive a car. Another attitude problem is the spread effect, which shows up in a thought that the blind person has issues with hearing, for example. Another effect is backlash grounded on a belief that disabled people have no fair advantages in work. However, the Americans with Disabilities Act does not provide the people with any privileges.

The Analysis of Macro and Meso Solutions to Barriers

The work with the persons with disabilities divides into the macro, meso, and micro levels. A macro level presupposes an intervention on a large scale and includes work with large systems. It influences communities and care methods. Health care law or special organizations are examples of prevention on the macro level. People can apply to ADA or World Health Organization. A meso level embraces a medium scale and smaller groups. Meso level includes more local organizations like the Division of Disability Services (DDS) or the Division of Medical Assistance and Health Service (DMAHS) (World Health Organization, 2014).Micro level focuses directly on the personal features, family, and the immediate environment.

Theory can highlight important data for solving problems on macro and meso levels. Critical researchers define the problems resultant from social difference. For instance, the theory shows that particular problems with transport for disabled people should be solved on the meso level via allocation of local budget finances for purchasing special devices. Disability is not an individual matter. The obstacles should be addressed through the government and special organizations and identification of right solutions. Appropriate treatment, education, jobs, and facilities can solve some part of the problems.

The Role of the Human Service Providers

People with health issues suffer from different obstacles and discrimination daily. Nevertheless, many organizations work as human service providers and defend the rights of the people. For instance, one of the major goals of the World Health Organization (WHO) is define the measures and procedures to tackle the problems of disabled people. WHO cooperates with the United States Congress in order to develop and implement the policies and different programs for improving the access to healthcare services. However, a great problem of the lack of services in the country districts exists. People with health problems rely on low social pay and their rights’ defense (Work Group for Community Health and Development, 2015). Disabled persons need to know their rights and have to learn the legislation carefully to avoid possible discrimination. ADA supports the rights of people with disabilities and motivates equality. New effective policies were adopted in 2011 (The White House, 2015). The regulations include information for the disabled people seeking employment; access to the health care; mobility incapability; hospitals for persons with hearing and speech challenges; guide for the blind persons; and assistance of service animals (The White House, 2015).

People with disabilities can receive support at a plenty of special organizations on the local level. The commissions can help people with any problems. For instance, the Commission for Blind and Visually Impaired (CBVI) offers rehabilitation and help for persons with vision problems. The Division of Development Disabilities (DDD) provides services for persons with intellectual disorders. Catastrophic Illness in Children Relief Fund (CICRF) gives financial support.

Conclusion

Problems faced by people with health issues exist in different forms and relate to communications, environment, physical features, technologies, law, attitudes etc. All kinds of obstacles have to be assessed by special organizations and the government in order to prevent and highlight them. Nevertheless, the decrease of obstacles depends on the environment. It has to be appropriate for people to cope with the problems. Disabled people need support instead of compassion. Direct communication with the person with health issues is crucial; understanding takes time. The positive approach can help a person to feel that he or she has equal rights with healthy people.

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