Rices Portrait of Mao Zedong
The twentieth century China had grown to be an industrialized socialist state. Through the leadership of Mao Zedong, the state transformed from the nation of illiterate people to a well-industrialized nation (Rice, 1974). The leader was very determined to see a great country and he led a sequence of campaigns that sometimes got violent to transform his agricultural society to a modern industrialized one. Mao led the citizens of China into venturing into the manufacturing of nuclear bombs, missiles, and oil production. China grew better under the leadership of the leader and by the time he died, the country had become a major oil producer in the world and come up with an own nuclear bomb.
China recovered from the era of unequal treaties made by the West during the twentieth century. The country earned recognition and respect around the world through the strict leadership of Mao Zedong. China grew high day by day, gaining the attention of big nations such as the United States of America. During Mao’s regime, the United States put an end to its hostility, when Mao received President Nixon with a smiling face during his visit to Peking. The strained attitude of the USA to China was lasting for more than 20 years (Rice, 1974). The end of the hatred brought about a new era to the foreign affairs of the latter. China increased its steel output thus its export in steel and steel-related outputs grew. Many nations were willing to trade with the country due to its growing superiority on the international scene. Mao helped China achieve the new level of foreign affairs through his emphasis on industrialization.
The agricultural sector was abandoned in the twentieth century. Mao overemphasized the need for manufacturing leaving agriculture lagging behind. The lack of attention to the agricultural industry led to the famous famine and great loss of life in the twentieth century. During the twentieth century, Mao’s government redistributed land holdings of landlords and wealthy peasant among poor farmers. The leader also illegalized crops such as opium and ordered for them to be destroyed and replaced with better crops like rice. In an attempt to finance industrialization, Mao’s government decided to monopolize agriculture. By doing this, the authorities had the ability to buy grains from the farmers at low prices and sell them at higher prices thus generating enough capital for industrialization (Rice, 1974). Moreover, the government terminated private ownership of land and ensured that it taxed the farmers for every household harvest. Mao rationed the food that Chinese would consume in an attempt to keep a right outside image by being a great exporter of grain. The food rationing led to great famine and death of many people in China. Many Chinese also died due to heavy beatings by the government officials if they did not give the right grain measures to the government as required. Landowners were executed as well leading to significant deaths in the twentieth century.
There was a total disaster in China during the twentieth century when Mao led the youth of China to the Cultural Revolution. By 1966, Zedong believed that the leaders of the country were leading the party and China as a whole in the wrong direction. Mao convinced the youth to go against the impure elements of the Chinese society and bring back the revolutionary spirit that helped them win the civil war during the creation of the People’s Republic of China. The leader went further to shut down all schools and helped form youth groups referred to as Red Guards (Rice, 1974). These formations went around China harassing and humiliating the elderly folks of the country. With time, the Red Guard movement spread around the state forming its military and top leadership. Many people went through persecution, humiliation, and even death during that period. The youth from the urban areas was forcefully moved to the rural regions. Mao overthrew president Liu during that time. Much destruction happened during the period such as destruction of places of worship and massive deaths of the people.
During the twentieth century, China was characterized by massive death of people that resulted from the Cultural Revolution led by Mao Zedong and the great famine in the country. Land reforms during the century also left many people dead. Mao Zedong put so much attention to industrialization that overlooked agriculture. Additionally, places of worship were destroyed retrieving the people’s right to religion. Nevertheless, before the Cultural Revolution, there occurred a significant economic progress and began a new era in foreign affairs in China in the twentieth century.
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Relationship between Presidential Elections Discussions (Trump/Clinton etc.) and Cultural Revolution Discussions
America is nearing its presidential elections, and thus, it is the duty of the American citizens to look into all the contestants and choose their best. The Americans expect to go for a leader that will lead the country to democracy and never autocracy. Democracy is a form of government where people choose leaders by the means of voting, and all citizen have equal rights, while autocracy is a form of government where one person has unlimited powers over the rest and possesses the power to undermine the rights of others. As per the current American election polls, the battle occurs between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. The supporters of the latter majorly comprise of the African-Americans, women, the senior citizens, Christians, and people living in suburbs or small cities. Clinton has high black population approval ratings of 91% against Trump. The voters of the latter, in their turn, compromise of the whites, males, the old, and the ordinary followers.
America, on the one hand, has been a democratic nation with elections held after every four years. Justice has been seen in the series of free and fair elections that were carried out in the last years. The presidents who have been in power in America have observed the human rights of the Americans and ensured that all races and religions have been treated equally. China, on the other hand, experienced an era of autocratic system majorly during the period of Cultural Revolution. That time was an example of an era ruled under autocracy. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao violated the human rights of the majority of Chinese and overthrew the current president, an act that was autocratic (Rice, 1974). The human rights of the country’s citizens were violated during many ways when the government ordered the youth to beat up the elderly. The government officials of that time killed many land owners. Mao’s act of overthrowing the president and getting to power was authoritative in that the president should have got out of power by fair and free elections.
In the discussion of the presidential race in America, it is clear that Americans want a leader who treats all races and religions equally. Trump faced much criticism when he all Muslims to be banned from getting to the US. By discriminating against the Muslims, this candidate clearly shows that he does not uphold democracy. Discriminating Muslims means that they do not enjoy the rights of other citizens professing other religions. Additionally, by being biased against the Muslims, Trump could be leading Americans in the wrong direction of a sound system just like China was led during the Cultural Revolution. In that period of history, Mao violated the rights of the elderly people by ordering the youth to harass any senior citizen (Rice, 1974). The leader later broke the rights of the young people by forcefully moving them from the urban areas to the countryside.
The concept of governance refers to a process where elements of any society gain power, influence and have the ability to enact policies and decisions on public life and social improvement of the people they are governing. With the discussions concerning America’s political elections and the Cultural Revolution in China, one can have different concepts of governance. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao took power to his hands and ignored the human rights of the Chinese. The leader focused on the economic prosperity and ignored the social improvement of the life of his nation. The Cultural Revolution that he started led to the death of many people which was not an element of good governance as it was expected of him. Additionally, with the discussion on the nearing elections in America, one realizes that people object the concept of management that Trump has by planning to ban Muslims from entering America.
In relevance to the Cultural Revolution in China, autocratic governance is a failure. The phenomenon, which was majorly characterized by the violation of human rights, led to the destruction of the Chinese economy, culture and China as a whole. The impacts of the revolution are still felt up to date in the country and the world in general. China’s economy went down, and there was a massive destruction of property (Rice, 1974). Many people in the country lost their lives which led to Mao leaving an awful legacy. The leader left a heritage of bad governance despite improving Chinese industrial sector. The twentieth-century era of autocracy in China is a good example of bad management through the authoritative system. The democratic elections that the USA has been having explain the importance of good governance through democracy. If the Americans maintain democracy and elect a real president who upholds democratic values, they will enjoy the good fruits of good governance in the future.