One of the most widespread causes of heart complications among people of fourty and fefty years old is a heart attack (Ritchey et al., 2014). Heart attacks are so commonly observed in that age category because in the process of becoming older, human’s heart muscles become less elastic and so highly susceptible to heart attacks. In addition, many different changes occur in the event blood clots inside the heart and heart muscles. As a result of the increased occurrence of heart attacks in many parts of the world, regular exercises should become an effective intervention for adults aged above fifty. It has been scientificaly proved that sport aids in strengthening body as well as heart muscles and it helps people to remain healthy. This essay is a description of the problems and risks connected to the heart attack attainment among people aged fifty years and above. The essay also discusses the background of the issue, development of a question, the purpose of the essay and a reviews the literature in support for the need of research.

 
 

Background of the Problem

A heart attack takes place as a result of the death of a heart tissue due to the lack of sufficient blood. Deficiency of blood it the heart tissues may be caused by a blockage in the blood arteries that are responsible for the supply of oxygenated blood to the heart. It can also arise when there is a blockage of the coronary arteries. In most cases, a blockage occurs when there is a build-up of cholesterol in those blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. This problem in the medical circles is also known as atherosclerosis. Previously conducted statistics have portrayed that the occurrence of heart attack is highly prevalent among people at the age of fifty and above.

Today, the cardiovascular disease is a cause of approximately one out of every three deaths in the U.S. On a global scale, the Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) takes one life every minute (Harvard Health Publications, 2009). Heart attacks, as well as other cardiac deseases that can lead to death, have become very common today. In different parts of the world, it has become a common cause of death among more and more people. For this precise reason, research on an intervention strategy that can be used to mitigate the problem of heart attack amongst people aged fifty and above should be developed. Such interventions will aid to reducing the tendency to the increased mortality of people around the world, associated with heart attacks.

The stakeholders of the proposed solutions will be persons at the age of fifty and more. This is because they are subjected to the high risk propensity towards cardiovascular complications. The success of the proposed solutions will affect all the medical institutions that deal with treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This is because the offered solving will change the focus from using only pharmaceutical drugs when treating heart diseases to also encouraging patients and other high risk populations to undertake daily sport exercises. In addition, the solution will benefit the people who are at risk of suffering from heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases. Those who might be interested in the results of this research include population older than fifty, medical school students and the Department of Health.

Picot Question

Is a thirty-minute complex of exercises for people over the age of fifty effective enough in the process of reducing the risk of a heart attack or it is better to use hospital treatment as an intervention to the condition?

Description

The people involved in the research will be both men and women aged fifty years and more. The intervention identified as a remedy for the research problem is the thirty-minute daily complex of exercises. The comparison availed for evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention will be an examination of the group of people over fifty who will not receive any physical exercise regime. The expected outcome of the research will be that people who use the intervention will have a healthier heart compared to those who will not be engaged in this process. The positive character of regular exercises is in the fact that they will aid to the optimal flow of blood to the heart muscle. The time required for the implementation of the intervention is thirty minutes every day systematically.

Purpose Statement

There is a need for research to be performed in order to understand whether a thirty-minute daily exercise regime can be implemented as an effective strategy in mitigating personal risk of acquiring a heart attack. The purpose of the research is based on the reason that the prevalence of heart diseases among population of over fifty years old has increased tremendously and continues to grow every year. Moreover, the number of scientific research records that support the effectiveness of the thirty-minute exercise regime in reducing the risk of heart attacks among people is insufficient.

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Project Objective

The project objective lies in the ascertaining whether a thirty-minute exercise regime can help to reduce the risk of heart attacks among people aged fifty and above. The expected outcomes of the study will portray that regular exercising is effective in preventing of heart attack. The project to determine the effectiveness of the research will be performed on a sample of ten men and ten women. The chosen participants for the sample group will represent the targeted age population. Ten participants will be subjected to the identified intervention for thirty minutes on a daily basis. They will then perform the proposed exercises for a period of twelve weeks.

After this period, the participants will undergo a series of measurements to determine their levels of risk to suffer from a heart attack. The participants will undertake an exercise stress test using a treadmill attached to an ECG machine. They will also take an X-ray to enable the doctor to check their heart sizes for abnormalities. They will also be placed on an echocardiogram, coronary catheterization, computerized tomography scan of cardio system (CT) and a magnetic resonance imaging test (MRI). These measurements will allow the doctor to determine the condition of their health, and then state if they are in risk to have a heart attack. The comparison of the outcomes will be based on the results of the group of people who will use the intervention against those who will have no intervention.

Literature Review

From a publication authored by Mozaffarian et al. (2015), every forty-three seconds one person in the U.S. attains a heart attack. The article was a detailed statistical report from the American Heart Association that focused on the heart diseases as well as stroke statistics in 2015. According to the publication, approximately six hundred and thirty-five thousands of people were expected to develop a new coronary event (MI) (Mozaffarian et al., 2015). In addition, the article pointed out that approximately three hundred thousands of people would have a recurrent event of heart attack (Mozaffarian et al., 2015). These statistics proved that heart attack is a very serious illness that requires an urgent intervention.

According to a publication authored by Jacques et al. (2014), Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) can be used to prevent heart attacks and other cardiac complications among people all over the world. CR is a therapeutic treatment offered to everyone who was diagnosed with cardiac complications. It employs active regular exercise to facilitate an optimal flow of blood to the heart. From the research, it was determined that CR could be effective in helping people to prevent themselves from having a heart attack. In addition, CR can be used to help those people who have suffered from myocardial infarction and to prevent a recurrent attack. These findings further supported the need to develop a substantial research examining the effectiveness of regular exercise in preventing heart attack among people aged fifty and above.

According to a publication authored by Azad and Lemay (2014), medicinal regimens as well as improved standards of living can immensely assist the elderly in protecting themselves from suffering from a heart complication. The publication was a summary of a research performed for the management of chronic heart failures amongst the aging population. In the publication, the heart attack was identified to be among the numerous other factors that may trigger a heart failure. For example, it was determined that an improved quality of living and regular exercises could greatly benefit the elderly. Accordingly, the findings of this publication supported the statement that further researches have to be conducted to study this issue and given solution more.

In addition, the need for research on a possible intervention strategy for preventing heart attack can be supported by a publication authored by the American Heart Association (2013). The publication was a summary of statistical facts list of older USA residents living with cardiovascular diseases. According to the publication, in 2013, eighty-three point six million Americans had at least one form of cardiovascular complication (American Heart Association, 2013). The article also showed that between the ages of fifty and sixty-five, cardiovascular complications such as the heart attack were more prevalent among men than women (American Heart Association, 2013).

In addition, according to the publication, the leading reasons for death among women aged sixty-five and above in 2009 were cardiovascular diseases (American Heart Association, 2013). These statistics from the publication portrayed that there is an urgent need for an effective intervention in order to decrease the number of people who suffer or die from heart complications. One of the most effective variants would be to focus on the effectiveness of the thirty-minute daily exercises in preventing heart attacks. This research should be focused mostly on people of the targeted age group (fifty years old and more) since they are the most susceptible to acquiring a heart attack.

Conclusion

In conclusion, a heart attack is a condition attained when a heart muscle dies due to lack of sufficient blood from the blood vessels. It is evident that there is a need for research to be performed on the effectiveness of regular body exercises as an intervention strategy for preventing heart attack among people aged fifty and above. This is because the mortality rate of population suffering from a heart attack has increased tremendously over the last years. In addition, there is a gap in researches dedicated to determine whether a thirty-minute daily body exercises can be useful in reducing personal risk of suffering from a heart attack.

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